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CT Scan

A CT scan combines a series of X-ray images from different angles of the body to show detailed photos of any part of the body (bones, muscles, fat, blood vessels, etc) 

Spinal Tap

A spinal tap (or lumbar puncture) is when a needle is inserted into your spine to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. The cerebrospinal fluid can be used to diagnose infections of cancers in the brain. 

Neurocognitive Assessment

A neurocognitive assessment is a non-invasive test providers use to determine a patient's cognitive function. This assessment can include coordination and motor skills, memory, and processing speed. 

Metastatic Cancer

Metastatic cancer is when a cancer has spread to a secondary location in the body. Metastatic cancer is an advanced stage of cancer and can require more extensive treatment.

Human Development Index (HDI)

Human Development Index (HDI) is used to measure a country's development using three key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to education, and having a decent standard of living.


Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that uses the body's own immune system to target  cancer. It boosts the immune response to more effectively recognize and attack cancer cells.

Phases of Clinical Trials

Clinical trials go through many phases before the drug is introduced to the public. Phase l tests whether the treatment is safe, possible side effects, and building up to the proper dose. Phase ll tests the effectiveness of the drug alone and combined with other treatments for cancer. Phase lll is when they test whether this new therapy is better than existing therapies. Phase llll is when they study the long-term effects of the drug.

Compassionate Use 

Compassionate use, or expanded access, is when a company provides a patient their unapproved therapy outside of a clinical trial if the patient has a serious or life-threatening disease. Compassionate use can only be given if the patient has no alternative therapies to treat the disease, and the benefits of the drug outweigh the potential side effects.  

Low-Grade and High-Grade Cancer

Low-grade cancer refers to tumors composed of cells that appear similar to normal cells and are organized, resulting in slower growth and lower likelihood of spreading. In contrast, high-grade cancer has cells that are abnormal in appearance and organization, leading to faster growth and greater likelihood for metastasis.

Primary Tumors

A primary tumor refers to the original, initial cancerous growth in the body, from which cancer cells may migrate and establish secondary tumors, a process known as metastasis. These secondary tumors are of the same cancer type as the primary tumor.

Progression-Free Survival

The duration during and after the treatment of a disease, such as cancer, when a patient lives with the disease without it worsening.

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